Table step 1. Standard Characteristics According to BP Classification

Bloodstream samples was indeed taken on the antecubital vein immediately after at the least ten period out of fast. Blood evaluation incorporated overall cholesterol levels, high?density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and smooth sugar.

Antihypertensive and Lipid?Decreasing Medications

Information about antihypertensive and you will lipid?reducing medications is actually received due to linkage towards the Medical insurance Review and Research Solution medicine database. 13 Antihypertensive pills have been classified to the ??adrenergic blockers, angiotensin?changing enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, ??adrenergic blockers, calcium supplements channel blockers, and you may diuretics. To own consolidation antihypertensive drugs, per component is actually mentioned individually. Statins provided atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin, and you will pitavastatin.


The primary consequences is experience CVD, identified as the original hospitalization for CVD, along with ischemic heart problems (International Classification out-of Diseases, Tenth Enhance [ICD?10], requirements I20?I25), coronary arrest (ICD?10 requirements I60?I64), and you can transient ischemic assault (ICD?10 code G45), determined compliment of linkage for the Medical health insurance Comment and you will Review Service database. Given that supplementary outcomes, i together with examined ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction (ICD?ten requirements I21?I24), coronary attack, ischemic coronary arrest (ICD?ten code I63), hemorrhagic stroke (ICD?ten code I60?I62), and you can transient ischemic attacks by themselves. twenty four , 25

Statistical Analyses

Study participants were split up into 8 mutually exclusive classes: (1) normal BP; (2) increased BP; (3) stage step 1 blood pressure levels; (4) phase dos blood pressure; (5) addressed and you will purely managed blood pressure level; (6) handled and you may managed blood pressure; (7) managed however, out of control blood circulation pressure; and (8) untreated blood pressure. For every single fellow member try followed up throughout the baseline test until the growth of event CVD otherwise e first. Threat ratios and 95% CIs to own CVD was basically projected playing with Cox proportional hazards regression data. I reviewed the latest proportional dangers presumption from the investigating graphs out-of projected journal (?log) endurance shape.

Cox models were initially adjusted for age and sex, and then further adjusted for study center (Seoul or Suwon), year of screening examination (1?year categories), body mass index, smoking (never, past, current, or unknown), alcohol intake (0 g/d, <20 g/d, ?20 g/d, or unknown), physical activity (inactive, minimally active, health?enhancing physically active, or unknown), education level (less than college education, college education or more, or unknown), total calorie and sodium intake, history of diabetes mellitus, use of statins, and Charlson comorbidity index (model 1). Model 2 further adjusted for low?density lipoprotein cholesterol, high?density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose (model 2).

We also examined the association between BP categories and CVD in subgroups defined by age (<40, 40?<50, and ?50 years), Framingham risk score (<10% and ?10%), and atherosclerotic CVD risk score (<10% versus ?10%). Interactions between BP categories and subgroup characteristics were tested using likelihood ratio tests comparing models with versus without multiplicative interaction terms.

All statistical analyses were conducted with Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) Enterprise Guide, Version 6.1 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC). P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.


The common (SD) chronilogical age of studies members is 39.0 (8.9) decades, and 54.5% were people (Dining table 1). Brand new prevalences away from normal BP, increased BP, phase step 1 blood pressure level, stage dos blood circulation pressure, handled and you will purely managed blood pressure levels, addressed and you can controlled hypertension, managed and out of control blood pressure level, and you may untreated blood circulation pressure within baseline was basically 71.7%, six.2%, thirteen.5%, step 3.5%, 2.0%, 1.1%, 0.3%, and you can step 1.7%, respectively. High BP membership had been undoubtedly associated with older age, male intercourse, alcohol intake, diabetic issues mellitus, genealogy and family history regarding CVD, and better degrees of total cholesterol levels, low?density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and you may triglycerides; and so they was inversely associated with large?density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Professionals that have untreated blood circulation pressure have been prone to end up being more youthful and less inclined to have diabetes mellitus than members which have managed blood pressure level.

ALT suggests alanine aminotransferase; ASCVD, atherosclerotic CVD; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BP, blood pressure levels; CVD, cardiovascular illnesses; DBP, diastolic BP; FRS, Framingham exposure get; GGT, gamma?glutamyltransferase; HDL?C, high?occurrence lipoprotein cholesterol levels; HEPA, health?enhancing truly productive; HOMA?IR, homeostasis design comparison away from insulin resistance; hsCRP, high?awareness C?reactive protein; LDL?C, low?occurrence lipoprotein cholesterol levels; SBP, systolic BP.