Koy Sanjaq (KS): The language of one’s Jews out of Koy Sanjaq, citizen since throughout the 1951 inside Israel

Guidance originates from Robert Hoberman (personal correspondence). It is apparently generally affiliate of the Jewish dialects from a great many other places of region also, including Aqra and you will Rawanduz.

However, contained in this dialect there’s an extremely unusual change from h to help you h throughout the third person only one possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’

Azerbaijan (Azer): What of one’s Jews from Iranian Azerbaijan, along with communities within the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you will Yuksekova. Info is of Garbell (1965).

Halabja (Hala): What of your own Jews away from Halabja into Iran-Iraq border. This is very close to the Jewish dialects of the other towns and cities of one’s area, including Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and Panjwin. Guidance arises from my notes.

We are going to examine this type of dialects regarding twenty-five phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you will lexical criteria. Following Hetzron (1976, 98), i’ve selected just innovations because the conditions to possess category. You will find chose a great disproportionate quantity of morphological conditions, therefore shall provide them with special lbs, once again following Hetzron, however, most other mutual designs is considered as really.

Notice as well as the more complicated preservation and also insertion regarding within the Koy Sanjaq claimed because of the Hoberman (1985)

Even as we compare brand new languages off NENA we are going to you will need to dictate the new the total amount that the latest languages show a distinct development and this is different from Turoyo and you will Mandaic. Meanwhile, we will pick packages from isoglosses contained in this NENA.

(1) Worry could be penultimate in every the latest NA dialects, also Turoyo and Mandaic although not from the around three easternmost Jewish dialects, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you may Halabja, which be concerned the final syllable. These dialects hunt, similar to this, like in numerous (Garbell 1965), to show an unusually strong influence off Kurdish.

(2) Most of the NENA dialects keeps combined h and you can x. Within the Hertevin as a result, h, and you will every where else it’s x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you may dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]an excellent ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you may +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)

Both Turoyo and you will Mandaic maintain separate h and you may x. Certain NENA languages features reintroduced h as a borrowing from the bank away from Kurdish or Arabic or from Classical Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) not, new handed down language constantly reveals x. Including, inside the Tisqopa you will find lent Arabic terms and conditions, eg sahabi ‘friend’, that have h, however, passed on words such as laxma ‘bread’ consistently show x. (6)

(3) All NENA languages except Hertevin and you can Zakho have forfeit really days from passed down. Such as for instance, in the Aradhin we discover arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ comparable to Syriac arb a great and you may afra. Inside Hertevin plus Zakho, passed down is actually frequently ?: Hertevin thus?a good ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?los angeles ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 189). A number of most other languages some are maintained since ?, and, on the rest, is gone totally. Specific dialects enjoys reintroduced lent off Arabic otherwise Kurdish. Such as for instance, Halabja features ayza ‘good’.

(4) During the before languages away from Aramaic, such as Tiberian Hebrew, t turned [Theta] after a beneficial vowel. It alternation has been lexicalized inside NENA, that have both t otherwise lösen Sie bitte den Link jetzt [Theta] distributed as a result of entire paradigms, whether or not preceded by the a good vowel or otherwise not. Such as for instance, when you look at the Aradhin brand new verb ‘come’ now has [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, in addition to [Theta]e:la ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). After that, in a number of languages new phoneme [Theta] possess gone through even more change. In a few dialects [Theta] possess merged back again to t, and in someone else it is s or even l.(7) In one dialect, Jilu, it has become h right after which come removed except at start of a term. The 3 easternmost Jewish dialects display the fresh shocking shift regarding [Theta] to 1. The outcomes of them changes is seen on keyword ‘house’ hence seems in numerous languages because the become:[Theta great]a beneficial (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you can besa (Sanandaj Christian).